There are few examples where obesity is anything but bad for your health. Obesity—as measured by a body mass index (BMI) above 30—is associated with a significantly reduced lifespan and an increased likelihood to suffer from:
- Heart Disease
Given the overwhelming evidence for a causal—rather than just associative—link between obesity and at least some forms of poor health, public policies that promote exercise and healthy eating are likely to be highly beneficial to overweight individuals who pay heed. Less straightforward, could these policies also be cost-effective for healthier (or "thin") individuals through reduced public health spending and lower pooled insurance rates? In other words, do the health costs incurred by the obese create a negative externality borne by the rest of society?
Daniel Kahneman has done as much to change the way we think about economics as anyone—and yet, he is no economist, or at least not as we would traditionally think of one. Kahneman is a psychologist; a psychologist, however, with a Nobel Prize in Economics and the acclamation for having:
"Pretty much created the field of behavioral economics and revolutionized large parts of cognitive psychology and social psychology."
To illustrate how our brain works, Daniel Kahneman devised two systems of thinking. System 1 is the unconscious thought process that effortlessly manages the majority of our behavior (generally, without error). System 2 comprises our active cognitions and requires concentrated effort to apply. System 1, unbeknownst to System 2, automatically makes a number of serial errors that Kahneman has masterfully identified.
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